Kuznetsova Tat'yana Alekseevna, Candidate of biological sciences, associate professor, sub-department of chemistry and biotechnology, Saint-Petersburg State University of Trade and Economics (50 Novorossiyskaya street, Saint-Petersburg, Russia), email@example.com
Sorokopudov Vladimir Nikolaevich, Doctor of agricultural sciences, professor, All-Russian Selection-Technological Institute of Horticulture and Nursery (4 Zagoryevskaya street, Moscow, Russia), firstname.lastname@example.org
Yushin Yuriy Vladimirovich, Senior lecturer, Belgorod State Agricultural University named after V. Y. Gorin (26 Kirova street, Maisky village, Belgorod region, Russia), email@example.com
Background. Comparison of anatomical parameters and the water regime of plants in different climatic conditions reveals mechanisms of plant adaptation to drought. The purpose of the article is to identify anatomical and physiological parameters of drought resistance of Padus racemosa L. Xeromorphic signs allow to identify the most drought-resistant varieties and species of plants that can be used in selection. This contributes to maintaining yields in areas with dry vegetation periods.
Materials and methods. The objects of study were Padus racemosa plants (2001), plantings that grow in gardens of Belgorod and in the parkland of Saint-Petersburg. The authors investigated leaves that were collected from annual increment, taking into account the age of plants and the morphological address at flowering phenophases. The study of the epidermis was conducted using a Levenhuk 320 light microscope, a Levenhuk C310 NG video camera, A MOB-1-15×У4,2 eyepiece micrometer, a Quanta 200 3D scanning electron microscope. The researchers counted the number of stomata per surface unit of the epidermis, calculated the degree of openness of the stomata (%) and the coefficient of tortuosity of anticlinal walls, determined the main area of the epidermal cells and stomata. Investigation of the water regime was carried out according to the procedure of the Nikitsky botanical garden.
Results. In drought conditions in Belgorod, leaves are formed with a larger percentage of bound water, than in conditions of excessive moisture in St. Petersburg. In terms of Belgorod, leaves have xeromorphic signs such as thickened cuticular layers, the epidermis, a greater number of stomata, the coefficient of tortuosity of anticlinal walls. In St. Petersburg great losses of moisture in the six-hour wilting are caused by papilliform outgrowths from the main cells of the epidermis.
Conclusions. The study allowed to reveal the most informative xeromorphic signs of leaf tissues, which makes it possible to find ways to adapt plants to a lack of moisture.
Padus racemosa (Ehrh.) Agardh., adaptation, epidermis, stomata, water scarcity, water content, transpiration, gas exchange.
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